The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis and Vaccines

Original here: http://www.thevaccinereaction.org/2018/02/the-antibiotic-resistance-crisis-and-vaccines/

by Rishma Parpia

Ever since the discovery of the antibiotic commonly known as penicillin in the late-1920s, antibiotic drugs have transformed the face of modern medicine.1 Antibiotics have historically played an instrumental role in successfully treating bacterial infections.2 However, the overuse and misuse of these medications over the last few decades has created many challenges, including the growing problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

In 1954, Sir Alexander Fleming, the Scottish physician and pharmacist who discovered penicillin, warned that the misuse of antibiotics would result in a era of antibiotic resistant bacteria.3 Antibiotic resistance occurs when an antibiotic drug loses its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth to which they were once sensitive.4

Antibiotic resistance has become a global threat.4 New bacterial resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, which threaten the ability to treat common infectious diseases. Infections such as tuberculosis, blood poisoning, gonorrhea and foodborne diseases are becoming challenging to treat as antibiotics become less effective.4

Factors Contributing to Antibiotic Resistance

The over-prescription of antibiotics by physicians for viral infections and minor bacterial infections during the past half century is the most significant factor contributing to antibiotic resistance.5 According to a report published in Pharmacy and Therapeutics:

The overuse of antibiotics clearly drives the evolution of resistance. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between antibiotic consumption and the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria strains.3

Data on the number of antibiotics prescribed by physicians in the United States indicates that these medications are inappropriately prescribed.3 An analysis of the IMS Health Midas database that estimates antibiotic consumption based on the number of antibiotics sold in retail and hospital pharmacies revealed that in 2010, 22.0 standard units (a unit equaling one dose, i.e., one pill or capsule) of antibiotics were prescribed per person in the U.S.3  Furthermore, studies have shown that treatment indication, choice of specific antibiotic or duration of antibiotic treatment is incorrect in 30-50 percent of cases and that 30-60 percent of the antibiotics prescribed in intensive care units have been found to be unnecessary.3

Incorrect and unnecessary antibiotic therapy can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria through genetic alterations such as changes in gene expressions and mutagenesis, which can create “superbugs”.3

CONTINUES HERE: http://www.thevaccinereaction.org/2018/02/the-antibiotic-resistance-crisis-and-vaccines/

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